Mexicali is the capital of the Mexican state of Baja California. Mexicali is also the seat of the Municipality of Mexicali. Founded on March 14, 1903, Mexicali is situated on the U.S.-Mexico border adjacent to Calexico and is the northernmost city in Latin America
For centuries before the arrival of Europeans, the Colorado River delta had been inhabited by the Yuman peoples, with the major tribes being the Kiliwa and the Cocopah. These cultures had developed irrigation and other agricultural techniques to produce squash, melons, peas and five different colors of corn. They also were navigating the waters of the Colorado on reed rafts
The Spanish arrived to the area after crossing the Sonora Desert's "Camino del Diablo" or Devil's Road. This lead to the evangelization of the area and also the population collapse of the native peoples. Today Cocopah descendants inhabit a small government-protected corner of the delta near the junction of the Hardy and Colorado rivers. These people mostly work on agricultural ejidos or fish the rivers, although many have migrated to Mexicali
Silicon Border was a high-tech manufacturing park intended 10 years ago to be functioning by now near the border with California. The aim of the manufacturing park was to capitalize on Mexicali's proximity to the US. The Mexican Federal and Baja California governments had committed over $2 million to the project, however, the project is dead and the money has been spend with nothing to show for, as usual.
The New River, which runs north to the state of California from Mexicali is considered the most polluted river in North America, has toxic levels of lead and other heavy metals,fecal bacteria,pathogens and industrial waste;also air pollution is a problem during summer and winter months with dust and other particulate levels exceeding healthy levels and a long time issue.
Mexicali also relies on tourism as a medium revenue, and visitors cross by foot or car from Calexico in the United States every day. Restaurants and taco stands, pharmacies, bars and dance clubs are part of the draw for the city's tourists. Many shops and stalls selling Mexican crafts and souvenirs are also located in walking distance from the border.
Also many residents from California, Arizona and Nevada look for medical and dental services in Mexicali, because they tend to be less expensive than those in the United States.